CCNA / CCNP Interview questions

I collected this questions from various books and online articles.Hope this will help you while preparing for your interviews.If you want to know how to prepare for Network Interview see this post 

Basic Interview Questions 
  • What is Routing?
  • What is Protocol?
  • Explain difference between Router,Switch and Hub ?
  • What is the difference between OSI and TCP/IP Model ?
  • What is the size of IP Address?
  • IEEE standard for wireless networking?
  • What is the range of class A address?
  • What is the range of class B address?
  • What is the range of class C address?
  • What is PoE (Power over Ethernet) ?
  • What is a peer-peer process?
  • What is the difference between broadcast domain and collision domain ?
  • What is ping? Why you use ping?
  • Explain difference between straight and cross over cable with examples ?
  • What is the difference between tracert and traceroute
  • What is Round Trip Time?
  • Define the terms Unicasting, Multiccasting and Broadcasting and Anycasting?
  • Where do we use cross and standard cable?
  • How many pins do serial ports of routers have?
  • What are the differences between static ip addressing and dynamic ip addressing?
  • Difference between CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA ?
  • What is DHCP scope?
  • What is Checksum?
  • What is  Redundancy ?
  • What are the criteria necessary for an effective and efficient network?
  • What is the key advantage of using switches?
  • When does network congestion occur?
  • Does a bridge divide a network into smaller segments?
  • What are the different memories used in a CISCO router?
  • What are the different types of passwords used in securing a CISCO router?
  • What is the use of "Service Password Encryption" ?
  • Brielfly explain the conversion steps in data encapsulation.?
  • In configuring a router, what command must be used if you want to delete the configuration data that is stored in the NVRAM?
  • Differentiate Logical Topology from Physical Topology?
  • what is AS (Autonomous System) ?
  • What is the difference between Private IP and Public IP ?
  • Explain different cable types ?
  • How does RIP differ from EIGRP?
  • Differentiate User Mode from Privileged Mode
  • What is 100BaseFX?
  • Differentiate full-duplex from half-duplex ?
  • What does the show protocol display?
OSI Model Interview Questions
  • List the layers of OSI ?
  • What are the responsibilities of Data Link Layer?
  • What are the responsibilities of Network Layer?
  • What are the responsibilities of Transport Layer?
  • Routers work at which OSI layers?
  • Switches work at which OSI layer ?
  • In which layer term "Frames" is used ?
  • In which layer term "Packets" is used ?
  • In which layer term "Segments" is used ?
  • Give some example for protocols work in Application layer ?
  • What is CRC? Which layer CRC works ?
  • What is the purpose of the Data Link?
  • What is a Window in networking terms?
  • What is the role of the LLC sublayer in datalink layer?
  • What is the function of the Application Layer in networking?
  • What are the difference between TCP and UDP?
  • What is the port no of DNS and Telnet?
  • Which service use both TCP and UDP ?
  • What is the port no of SMTP and POP3?
  • Which one is reliable – TCP or UDP ?
RIP Interview Questions 
  • What is Route Poisoning?
  • What is Split Horizon ?
  • Utilizing RIP, what is the limit when it comes to number of hops?
  • What is the difference between RIP V1 and V2 ?
  • Mulitcast address of RIP v2 ?
  • Administristative distance of RIP ?
  • Can we use RIP in a scenario having more than 15 routers ?
  • What is the difference between RIP and RIPng?
STP Interview Questions
  • What is Spanning tree aka STP ?
  • How does STP maintain a loop-free network?
  • What parameters can be tuned to influence the selection of a port as a Root or Designated Port?
  • What is BDPU ?what is the basics function of BPDU?
  • Using the default STP timers, how long does it take for a port to move from the Blocking state to the Forwarding state?
  • What is the STP listening state?
  • Which command enables RSTP on a switch?
  • what is Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Protocol (PVST)
  • What is the default bridge priority in a Bridge ID for all Cisco switches?
  • Which STP version run default on cisco switches ?
  • What is the purpose of Spanning Tree Protocol in a switched LAN?
  • Difference between Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)?
  • What is the STP blocking state?
  • What is the STP Forwarding state?
  • Difference between Root Port and Designated Port?
  • What is the difference between path cost and root path cost?
  • What is the difference between STP, MSTP, PVST and RSTP?
  •  What is path cost?
  • Define selection criteria of STP root bridge.
  • What are the four spanning tree port states?
  • How to non bridge decide which port will elect as root port?
  • If a nonroot bridge has two redundant ports with the same root path cost, how does the bridge choose which port will be the root port?
  • Port states of spanning tree protocol.
  • If the users face delay during initial login, what you will suggest to implement?
  • Why spanning tree BPDU filter is used?
  • Can I use BPDU filter on trunk ports?
  • Which port state is introduced by Rapid-PVST?
  • What is Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) PortFast?
  • What does STP do when it detects a topology change in the network due to a bridge or link failure?
VLAN Interview Questions
  • Which switching technology reduces the size of a broadcast domain?
  • Which  protocols are used to configure trunking on a switch?
  • What is SVI ?
  • what is meant by "router on stick" ?
  • which is the default mode in switch ports ?
  • Difference between 802.1Q and ISL  ?
  • Which are the two trunking protocols ?
  • Which Protocol encapsulate Etherframes ?
  • Which is the Vlan not tagged by 802.1Q ?
  • How to delete vlan information from switch ?
  • Difference between access and trunk mode ?
  • Difference between dynamic auto and dynamic desirable ?
  • what is the use of nonegociate command in switch ?
  • Explain different switch port modes ?
  • what is DTP ?
  • Can we see trunk interfaces in show vlan command ?
  • which is the command used to see trunk interfaces ?
  • what is the maximum number of vlans permitted in 802.1Q and ISL
  • what is the header size of 802.1Q ?
VTP Interview Questions
  • what are different Vlan modes ?
  • What happens to interfaces when you delete a VLAN?
  • What is the difference between VTP Transparent and VTP Client mode ?
  • Which is the default mode of VTP ?
  • what is VTP Pruning ?
  • What are two benefits of using VTP in a switching environment?
  • Which VTP mode is capable of creating only local VLANs and does not synchronize with other switches in the VTP domain?
Passive Interface Interview Questions
  • What is passive interface ?
  • Explain effect of Passive interface on RIP,EIGRP and OSPF ?
  • What is the effect of default passive interface command ?
  • Why does the EIGRP passive-interface command remove all neighbors for an interface?
  • How do I stop individual interfaces from developing adjacency in an OSPF network?
  • What command is used to stop RIP routing updates from exiting out an interface but still allow the interface to receive RIP route updates?
  • How Does the Passive Interface Feature Work in EIGRP?
EIGRP Interview Questions 
  • What is EIGRP?
  • What are the different tables in EIGRP?
  • Why EIGRP is called hybrid protocol
  • What are the different packets in EIGRP?
  • What are the advantages of EIGRP other routing protocol ?
  • What type of Authentication is supported by EIGRP ?
  • What is the use of "variance" Command in EIGRP?
  • Internal and external Administrative distance in EIGRP ?
  • What is Feasible successor ?
  • What is Advertised distance ?
  • What is successor  ?
  • What is the muticast address used by EIGRP to send Hello packets ?
  • What is "Stuck in Active" ?
  • what is "Graceful shutdown" ?
  • what is "Goodbye" message recieved in EIGRP ?
  • Maximum path load balanced by EIGRP ?
  • How EIGRP support unequal load balancing ?
  • What happen when we enable passive interface in EIGRP ?
  • Conditions for EIGRP neigbours
  • what is meant by active and passive states in EIGRP ?
  • What are the different K-values used in EIGRP ?
Wireless Interview Questions
  • What is Wi-Fi?
  • What is a Wi Fi Hotspot?
  • What is IBSS,BSS and ESS ?
  • Why WPA encryption is preferred over WEP?
  • What is 802.1x and EAP ?
  • Name two devices can interfere with the operation of a wireless network because they operate on similar frequencies?
  • What are three basic parameters to configure on a wireless access point?
  • What is the maximum data rate specified for IEEE 802.11b WLANs?
  • Which encryption type does WPA2 uses ?
  • When two laptops directly directed wirelessly,what type of topology has been created ?
  • Which Spread spectrum technology does the 802.11b standard define for operation  ?
  • which two wireless encryption method are based on RC4 encryption algorithm ?
  • which is the minimum parameter need on the access point inorder to allow a wireless client to operate on it ?
  • What is the frequency range of the IEEE 802.11g standard?
  • What is the maximum data rate for the 802.11a standard?
  • What is the maximum data rate for the 802.11g standard?
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  1. Excellent information. Keep it up mate.

  2. Very helpful article

  3. Good stuff. Thanks for sharing Shabeer.

  4. karthikeyan boopathyJune 26, 2013 at 6:47 PM

    Thank you Shabeer

  5. I came from linkedin..excellent work mate

  6. I just took a job as tier 2 support for Cisco and Windows systems.
    The questions during the interview had more to do with personal/professional standards, favorite technologies, teamwork/leadership, and personality related stuff.
    After the interview there was a small troubleshooting scenario hosted in a virtual environment where I had to troubleshoot layer 3 connectivity and a few other Windows based items.
    So my advice is focus more on what qualities you bring to the table rather than technical skill. If you have the basics of networking down the rest can be taught/learned but you can't make someone not be a lazy asshole who is miserable to work with.

    1. Congrats Martin,Did you have any experience before accepting that job as a tier 2 support?

    2. Yes. I had 3 years of tier 1 support and 1 year of data center support.
      When I took the tier 1 support position I had 0 experience and education and just kind of went with it. Mostly I was supporting Windows desktops and doing hardware level repair. The data center job came as part of a competitive internship I landed while in school for my AAS degree.
      Knowing your basics, like describing the OSI model, are essential to be able to perform the job and are valuable skills. However if you don't have the soft skills to make them like you during an interview it's not going to matter how much you know, IMO.

  7. Very Informative... Many of the questions listed here, were asked in the interviews I attended... Thanks!!!

  8. any body knows the answer plz send me on .I would appreciate

  9. Hi Shabeer, Will you send Questions and especially Answers above post if I purchase ur Pdfs?
    anyway, great post!! Keep it up.. n thanks!

    1. PDF notes include CCNA / CCNP notes and Q&A

    2. Hi Shabeer sir,

      Can you pls share me pdf question & answer @

  10. If any body knows the answer above posted Interview Question, plz send me on


    1. Drop me a mail at i will send you the alternative payment option

  12. How much cost of CCNA AND CCNP notes ?

    1. 7$ for CCNA/CCNP PDF materials

    2. where can i buy the question and answers from??

    3. you can buy from paypal link in this blog or if you are from india drop me an email at for alternative payment option


  13. Hi friends, This is Jamuna from Chennai. Your technical information is really useful for me. Keep update your blog.
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  14. How much cost of CCNA & CCNP interview questions with ANSWERS???

    1. Its a package of notes and Q&A - CCNA 7$ and CCNP 10$

  15. Valuable information ..I am delighted to read this article..thank you for giving us this useful information.
    CCNA Routing and Switching

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  17. Hi Shabeer,

    I want interview questions and answers so that by studying them i can crack L1 interviews. How much cost would be there??I am from india. My id is

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  19. This is very useful and I want to buy it, I am in VietNam. How can I buy it? Does it include OSPF, BGP, QoS and IPv6? My email is Thanks,

  20. Thanks for the information. The information you provided is very helpful for me like who are gettining trained on CCNP .

  21. Nice article Thanks for sharing this article Wonderful information from this website Thanks !!!

  22. Wow, That was an great article. This helps lot's of CCNA Learners

  23. this is only the interview questions ?